Creating Significant Learning Environments

Developing a Growth Mindset Plan

In order to create significant learning environments in my context, I will intentionally add more elements to my original growth mindset plan. Since the growth mindset  is a method of thinking about obstacles and failures. I will use the four CSLE steps. The first step is to build trust and rapport in the environment. Trust-building cannot be sped up. The process requires interactions amongst the different stakeholders on a daily basis. By doing this step I am fostering a new culture of environment in which students’ learning is influenced by the actions and behaviors of their teachers. My behaviors as a teacher have an impact on how students perceive new information, how I place myself in my classroom, and how classroom interactions affect students. As a teacher I expect my learners to consider the information I teach so that they are able to construct an interpretation. In other words, the learner assimilates new knowledge into current organizational schemes

A second step is identifying learners’ fixed mindsets.  My goal is to identify a fixed mindset, reflect  upon it and change how my students  express themselves with thoughts that are focused on growing and learning.  Constructing knowledge is best gained through a process of reflection in the mind (Mascolo & Fischer, 2005). Thus, the learner must consider the information being taught and based on past experiences, personal views, and cultural background construct an interpretation. However, because constructivism casts me, the educator, as a participant in helping the learning of new knowledge, I bear a significant amount of responsibility. Teachers are responsible to create an appropriate learning environment which encompasses the culture of a school or class, its presiding ethos and characteristics, and how individuals interact with and treat one another in a world that is constantly changing.

The third step is to set goals. Having a growth mindset assumes that challenge and failure are springboards for stretching learners abilities. In order to accomplish this, a person needs to identify and set goals that they want to accomplish. Such a process helps them feel successful. But what happens if the learner does not meet the goal? People with a growth mindset will see failure as an opportunity to learn and try again. This is where the word “Yet” is important to improve the significant  learning environment. That’s my main goal as an educator. I want students to be able to use “Yet” more often and support them in their growth mindset process.

The last step in the changing mindset process is receiving feedback with a growth mindset. This is easier said than done. Feedback is a major area where a growth mindset proves worthwhile. The issue I have with feedback is the sense of personal attack felt when it is provided. But I do have to say that I have been changing this fixed mindset that has led me to block myself from building a growth mindset. It is not easy to hear where my work falls short, but I understand that the feedback is not attacking my identity but is helping me become a better professional. The more I am exposed to receiving feedback, the more receptive I will be and the fixed-mindset thinking of shutting down because I am reluctant to hear bad news will lessen. I definitely avoid the false feedback and I will improve the feed forward as important elements to the  learning environment. 

During this course, I was able to reflect upon my learning philosophy which describes why I became an educator and what drives such a passion for teaching and learning. The pandemic and the work I did at school allowed me to change my mindset on new cultures of learning. When I first started teaching I looked forward to designing my own units. But, little did I know the thinking behind such a task. Although I have some years of teaching experience, I am still learning on how to develop effective and engaging units that are meaningful and relevant to each one of my students. Curriculum design is an area of growth in my context.  Exploring the UbD and Fink’s frameworks and creating units using both designs was a huge task that allowed me to have a change in mindshift.  To be honest, the Self-Directed Guide (titled Aligning Outcomes, Assessments, and Activities) required me to really zoom out to see the bigger picture of the unit. This is a process that I am not accustomed to being engaged in but that certainly helped me with my growth mindset. Even though I struggled through the process, I did not give up. I read the articles two times and used a wide variety of resources to really understand the differences and similarities between the two frameworks. It really pushed my thinking and helped me with my growth mindset. This leads me to my Innovation Plan and how it might change as I grow in this learning process.


Designing a unit using the UbD framework

When I first started teaching I looked forward to designing my own units. But, little did I know the thinking behind such a task. That’s when I started digging deeper to discover new approaches and models to be implemented in my teaching practice. The most recent personal discovery is the UbD (Understanding by Design) which is a  model for the design and development of the curriculum that begins with the identification of the desired results. The UbD  model was developed by two renowned educators, Dr. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. This model has an approach focused on the teaching-learning process. The main objective is to develop and deepen the student’s understanding. McTighe (2005) states that understanding is revealed when students autonomously make sense of and transfer their learning through authentic performance. But what is authentic performance? I truly believe that a task becomes authentic when it is relevant and meaningful to the learner. In addition to that, I, the teacher, need to provide some type of choice so that students are able to develop their creativity. 

For this specific task, I decided to design a unit for my Spanish I class – grade 7. When I started developing the unit using the UbD framework, I realized I was able to dig deeper into the specifics of the entire unit. With the UbD framework, I focused  on alignment. Once I had the book ends, standards and assessment, I was able to figure out the different learning activities that would help the students achieve the goals. This same process happened when designing the unit using BHAG (3-column table). However, with this framework, I was not so focused on the specifics of the learning activities. There was alignment but not at the same level of specificity as the one I engaged with when using the UbD framework. Both models, UbD and BHAG, use a backward design and have transfer as their main goal. One of the issues I ran into when using the 3-column table, is that I tried to cover more content than what I needed and my mind always went to the nitty-gritty of the everyday teaching practice. I added too many details and to me it sounded like a lesson plan. I am still trying to figure out how to make it more general without losing sight of what my main goals for the lesson are. As a teacher, I know that there is typically more content than can reasonably be addressed within the available time, so I need to make choices regarding time, scope and sequence and ways in which students are going to be assessed. When designing the unit using the BHAG columns, I was able to clarify some important points to make learning meaningful. 

My biggest take-away from both models is the fact that they guide me to plan with the end in mind. The UbD is a framework that allows me, as an educator, to create solid instructional units that are meaningful to my students. The BHAG – 3-column table framework allows me to make sure that “significant learning contains a number of more specific kinds of learning that are related in some way and has a distinct value for the learner.” (Fink, 2005). Differentiating between both frameworks has not been an easy process for me. It is a mindshift that will take some time to understand and eventually apply in my teaching practice. In both frameworks, there has to be some kind of change in the learner which is my ultimate goal in the teaching and learning process.

UbD Stage 1 – Desired Results

Established Goal(s)/Content Standard(s):
*Effectively communicate with varied audiences and for varied purposes while displaying appropriate cultural understanding.
*Communicate effectively in Spanish in realistic situations while displaying a sensitivity to culture and context.
*Effectively communicate for different purposes and varied audiences using appropriate media.
Understanding (s)
Students will understand that:
*Meaning is conveyed through phrasing, intonation, and syntax (just because you can translate all the words does not mean you understand the speaker).
*In today’s global community, it is important to be able to communicate effectively in more than one language.
*Language provides individuals with the ability to express thoughts and ideas for their own purposes. 
*Effective communication requires purposeful application of vocabulary and structure.
*A culture’s products and practices are influenced by its underlying perspectives.
*Deeper insights into the nature of language and culture are achieved through the study of another language. 
*Studying another language and culture offers insights into one’s own. 
*Learning a language connects people to the world
Essential Question(s):
*How does technology help me to communicate?
*How does what people do and how they think tell you about who they are?
*How can one express complex ideas, in writing and speaking, using simple terms?
*What do good speakers sound like, what is a good listener, and what is “flow” in language?
*How do I use my understanding of culture to communicate and function appropriately in another culture? 
*How do I use my knowledge of language and culture to enrich my life and broaden my opportunities?
*What distinguishes a fluent foreigner from a native speaker?
*What can we learn about our own language and culture from studying another?
Student objectives (outcomes) TEKS (LOTE/Spanish):
Students will be able to:
1A. Ask and respond to questions about everyday life in spoken and written conversations. 
1E. Participate in spoken conversations using culturally appropriate expressions, register and gestures.
1F. Participate in written conversations using culturally appropriate register and style. 
2A. Demonstrate an understanding of culturally authentic print, audio and audio-visual materials in everyday contexts.
2B. Identify keywords and details from fiction and non-fiction texts and audio visual materials.
3B. Describe people, objects and simple situations orally and in writing using a mixture of words, phrases and simple sentences.

Stage 2 – Assessment Evidence

Performance Task(s):
For the student: Your class has been studying the Spanish speaking countries and has decided to become e-pals with students from one of those countries. This month, you will create a video describing teenagers in your country. .
For the teacher:
Goal: The student’s goal is to create a video in Spanish describing students from other schools in different Spanish speaking countries.
Role: The student will be an e-pal from another country.
Audience: The audience will be the student’s e-pal.
Situation: The student has been asked to describe physical characteristics and traits of  teenagers.
Product, Performance and Purpose: The student will create a video describing teenagers in their country. 
Standards and Criteria for Success: The teacher will assess the following components: rough draft (script), creativity, vocabulary and grammar, Spanish content (Verb to-be, adjectives, nouns). 
Other Evidence:
Formative assessments
Bulletin board display
Use of conjuguemos.com
Role-plays (open your ears activity)
Quizzes
Unit Assessment (adjectives, nouns) 

Stage 3 – Learning Plan

Learning Activities:
*The teacher introduces the theme of the chapter by having students look at the photographs on pages 20-21 in their textbook.
*Students look at the young people and determine if there is anything they see them doing that is the same or different from what they do with their own friends. 
*Teacher has students read the central question. Teacher scaffolds for students as needed.
The following activities may be used to help students formulate their answers:
The teacher writes the following on the board: ¿Es importante la identidad? Beneath it, make a column for Sí, No, and Más o menos. As you state each answer, have students raise their hands to indicate the option they agree with. Write the tally in each column.
*The teacher asks them to write a sentence or two in English about why they answered the way they did. Then, the teacher has them share with a small group. If possible, the teacher groups students of differing opinions together.
*The teacher asks students what they think is the biggest contributor to their identity. Use the Chapter Project in the planning pages that precede this chapter to assess understanding of the Pregunta central.
*The teacher will have students do the following activities throughout the course of the unit: Students will identify and describe people and things by using adjectives, nouns, articles and the verb to-be in speaking, listening and reading activities.
*Students will create a video to describe themselves and a person/animal/thing using  nouns, adjectives and articles.
*Students will analyze their learning environment to describe people’s personalities, and traits. Learners will create a video in the target language (Spanish) comparing and describing students from  other schools from different Spanish-Speaking countries.
*Students will reflect upon how interacting and collaborating with other classmates help them in their journey to learn a foreign/second language. 
*The teacher will present the performance task to students: Your class has been studying the Spanish speaking countries and has decided to become e-pals with students from one of those countries. This month, you will create a video describing teenagers in your country. Students create a chart stating what they know and what they need to know to accomplish the task
*Students get together as a team and assign roles and design a plan to complete the performance task.
*Teacher establishes a schedule to check in with each group to provide feedback.

References

Fink, L. D. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning. Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Harapnuik, D. (2016, June 16). Mapping Your Learner’s Journey. Retrieved from http://www.harapnuik.org/?p=6420

Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (expanded second ed.). Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.


Aligning Outcomes, Assessments and Activities

(BHAG – 3-Column Table)

This is the first time I hear about the term BHAG, which is an acronym for Big – Big, Hairy – Hairy, Audacious – Bold, Goal – Goal. It’s basically a big, bold and hairy, long-term goal that scares you but helps you to be clear and aligned where you want to go. This concept was created by Jim Collins, who launched the in his book Built to Last.

I decided to use the BHAG and 3 Column table for one of the units that I will be teaching during the 2021-2022 school year. I have to say that this unit will be part of my innovation plan in which I will be implementing Blended Learning.

This unit will be implemented in September in a Spanish 1 classroom. The unit focuses on reviewing previously learned vocabulary including school adjectives to describe people  and activities while adding the present tense verb “SER (to be)” and SUSTANTIVOS (nouns)”. Students will be exposed to information about and images of classrooms around the world to show how people look by describing them using adjectives in Spanish and pointing  out differences by culture. At the end of the unit, students will have two Performance-Based Assessments- an interpersonal conversation about what they want to do and need to do and an integrated writing assessment comparing and describing students from  other schools in Spanish-Speaking countries.

Subject Level: Spanish I

Title: ¿Cómo somos?

Length: 6 weeks

Course goal: In this unit, learners will be able to identify and describe people and things, using nouns, adjectives and articles.

LEARNING GOALASESSMENT ACTIVITIESLEARNING ACTIVITIES
Foundational: Students will identify and describe people and things by using adjectives, nouns, articles and the verb to-be in speaking, listening and reading activities.Picture Vocabulary

Students’ workbook

Connected e-Grammar
*Students create a Yo Soy-Bulletin Board Display
*Students use Conjuguemos.com to practice vocabulary and conjugations.
*Students participate in Nearpod Presentations
*Students actively participate answering questions while watching a video (facilitated by teacher) in Edpuzzle
*Students pair up and practice content learned (adjectives, nouns, articles).
*Students participate in an Open your ears listening activity.
Knowledge Application
Students will create a video to describe themselves and a person/animal/thing using  nouns, adjectives and articles.
Review the unit vocabulary and how to apply it 
Speaking Presentation 
Video Project-Describe your pet (Wave.com)
iSpanish: The Spanish  smartphone challenge
*Students learn how to create catchy videos (presentation)
*Students participate in Gammin- Booklet.com (interactive games) practicing the content being learned.
*Picture Talk – Students describe pictures shown by the teacher
*Movie Talk – students choose a character and describe him/her
Integrations: Stage 1
Students will analyze their learning environment to describe people’s personalities, and traits. 
Write a video script (Proposal) Classmates  will provide feedforward
Teacher will provide Feedback
Submit draft of first video
*Students watch videos from other students to provide ideas (model).
*Students create a script to practice pronunciation using teleprompter
*Students learn how to create a video using a video maker (canva, screencastify, loom) 
Integration Stage 2
Learners will create a video in the target language (Spanish) comparing and describing students from  other schools from different Spanish-Speaking countries.
Script for video
Submit final draft of video
*Students create/edit the video: Images, Pronunciation, Time 
Human Dimension /Caring
Students will reflect upon how interacting and collaborating with other classmates help them in their journey to learn a foreign/second language. 
Discussion, 
Reflection
*Students complete a survey regarding collaboration and interaction amongst members of the class.

My Learning Philosophy

Since I was little, I have been attracted to the worthy career of teaching and that is where I am directing my future. Based on my guardians’ occupations, their education, income, wealth and the place where I lived, I was labeled as at risk and living in poverty. I was raised by my aunt who lived in a humble neighborhood. As years passed by, I quickly realized a change needed to happen for me to reach my goals. One of those goals was to be able to help children to get an education. My teenage years were full of bumps on the road that made me feel defeated and without a sense of purpose for what I was working for. However, I was fortunate to have educators, and role models around me that lent a hand and provided the support I needed along the way.

Throughout these years as an educator, I have learned that change is inevitable. It is a reality that the world is constantly changing and ultimately, students, teachers, administrators, and families are directly affected by any societal change. As a learner, I know that it is of utmost importance to make connections across different disciplines. As an educator, I can provide my students with relevant opportunities that engage them in a process in which they construct meaning and acquire skills such as reliance and grit. 

One of the most relevant aspects as human beings is our education. For this reason, it must go hand in hand with the transitions that occur in our society. In this way my philosophy focuses on the consideration of a changing society and how education should adapt to such changes responding to the recurring needs of each student. My educational philosophy is based on the model of constructivism. Tan, S. C., & Hung, D. W. L. (2002) stated that constructivism is emphasized in situating learning experience in a real world context. The goal for constructivism is to encourage the learners to engage in the active process of meaning construction in real authentic problems and situations where learners are able to socially construct knowledge with others. In such an approach, I become more of a facilitator of learning in order to allow students to be in the driver’s seat so that they can take some responsibility and ownership for their learning. 

As an educator, I must be prepared to make modifications in my teaching methods in accordance with new knowledge, changes in the environment, and the needs and interests that arise from these changes. It is clear that education must aim at the adaptation and development of the human being in a changing environment. This in turn will promote a balance between the individual and the world in which they live. In the same way, and in accordance with the constructivism philosophy, the human being, through education, must be capable of solving problems in daily life, which is in accordance with my own philosophy. This in turn could be a critical part of the learner’s success in life. 

My own learning philosophy  is largely constructivist because it is how I learn best. Because of the cycle of relevant questions that occur when engaged in inquiry, I believe constructivist theories encourage inquiry-based learning. I have always been an inquisitive person with a strong imagination. I have always been a curious person who strives to comprehend, observe, and learn. However, in such a process, scaffolding is necessary. This is where I, as educator, have the responsibility to model the desired learning or task and gradually shift the responsibility to the learners. From Vygotsky’s perspective, social constructivism emphasizes the social contents of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed (Rust, Chris & O’Donovan, Berry & Price, Margaret, 2015). What is my responsibility as an educator? Providing the best learning opportunities that allow students to use their prior knowledge to construct meaning with the support of their peers and the teacher as the facilitator of learning. As a result,  knowledge is not transferred from teacher to student but constructed in the student’s mind. Another essential aspect in the constructivist approach is metacognition. Metacognition refers to one’s ability to understand and manipulate one’s own cognitive processes (Hyde and Bizar, 1989, p51). In other words, it is thinking about one’s own thinking and making the necessary changes about how one thinks. 

My learning philosophy has evolved throughout my experience in the classroom. I started as a substitute teacher before moving into a classroom teacher position at the secondary level. Although both positions are different due to the nature of the job responsibilities, they both require a facilitator of learning. Reflecting upon these experiences and my learning journey, I have to admit that my perspectives about learning have also evolved. First, I now understand and believe that students must always be the center of learning. Second, motivation must be present continuously in the classroom and lastly, learning in the classroom has to be related to the life and reality of the students. To achieve these  objectives, I have implemented different methodologies: cooperative learning, project-based learning, gamification or game-based learning.

Cooperative learning in which the teacher’s role changes from being a mere communicator of knowledge to being a facilitator in student learning is still present in everything I plan and do in my classroom. This is because I truly believe that students need to verbalize and make meaning through social interactions with their peers and adults. If a person were to enter into my classroom, they would see students working together, asking questions, solving problems, learning from each other, and of course having the teacher’s help when they need it. By doing this, I know I am adapting and diversifying learning and including all types of students within the class.

A second approach that I have experienced in my career is Project-Based Learning. This approach is perfect to contextualize learning. When teaching, it is very common to hear students questioning the activities I plan for them: and what is this for? Projects are the best tool to answer this question while learning. It is about looking for applications of those theoretical contents that they learned in the classroom, and making cross-curricular connections. In addition, students learn to work in a team, to carry out research, develop their communication skills, and are intrinsically motivated to reach their learning goals. 

The most recent approach that I have implemented in my classroom is gamification. Who doesn’t like to play games? Who has not learned new things by playing? From my point of view, gamification is a methodology that encompasses social skills, and allows students to become more interested in the content they are learning. The most common outline that I have implemented is by creating a story-like problem in which the learners are the protagonists. The goal is for students to become problem solvers as they progress in their learning and overcome the challenges of the game. As they do so,  they earn points. What I have experienced is that students become more motivated, and have fun when learning by applying the content they have learned. This type of approach has allowed me to individualize my teaching as I can create different challenges according to the students’ needs. I have also discovered that this approach promotes a sense of belonging to a group and increases their collaborative and cooperative skills.

The main goal in my innovation plan is to iIncrease student engagement, self-efficacy and agency in students. The main foundation of the plan is a constructive approach. The plan calls for students to socialize, learn from each other and drive their own learning paths. An eclectic approach which incorporates strategies from cooperative learning, Project-Based-Learning and Gamification will allow students to take ownership of their learning. As a result, my role as an educator is that of preparing each one of my students for the future, which in the end is at the core of Harmony School of Excellence mission. As an active and committed stakeholder of the Harmony school community, students need learning experiences through collaborative and student-centered educational programs that provide them with the skills to become productive citizens in the ever-changing society they live in nowadays.

References

Hyde, A. & Bizar, M. 1989. Thinking in context. White Plains, NY: Longman.

Rust, Chris & O’Donovan, Berry & Price, Margaret. (2015). A scholarly approach to solving the feedback dilemma in practice. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 41. 10.1080/02602938.2015.1052774.

Tan, S. C., & Hung, D. W. L. (2002). Beyond information pumping: Creating a constructivist e-learning environment. Educational Technology, 42(5), 48-54.


New Cultures of Learning

Students’ learning is influenced by the actions and behaviors of their teachers. Teachers’ behaviors have an impact on how students perceive new information, how they place themselves in classrooms, and how classroom interactions affect students. Teachers expect their learners to consider the information they teach so that they are able to construct an interpretation. In other words, the learner assimilates new knowledge into current organizational schemes. Constructing knowledge is best gained through a process of reflection in the mind (Mascolo & Fischer, 2005). Thus, the learner must consider the information being taught and based on past experiences, personal views, and cultural background construct an interpretation. However, because constructivism casts the instructor as a participant in helping the learning of new knowledge, the teacher bears a significant amount of responsibility. Teachers are responsible to create an appropriate learning environment which encompasses the culture of a school or class, its presiding ethos and characteristics, and how individuals interact with and treat one another in a world that is constantly changing. My main goal as a teacher is to provide my students with access and resources to new information and create a learning environment in which they develop student agency and construct new learnings.  

The concept of learning environments is constantly changing. Since the pandemic came, teachers face the need to recreate their teaching environment. One of my main mistakes I have made as a teacher is treating my learners as mere spectators who must adhere to certain standards created by today’s society. Reflecting upon my own practice, I have not offered enough opportunities for my learners to discover their full potential, to give them a voice to express their learning in different ways. I need to remember that the spotlight is not on me, the educator, but on the learner. Thomas (2011), in his video, “The Global One Room Schoolhouse” stated that for learning to be effective, teachers need to act as facilitators of student learning. Ultimately, my main responsibility is that of orchestrating the amazing ability to learn in the classroom. This change started to happen in my classroom about a year ago and I discovered my students were not engaged in my classes. According to Thomas (2011), “the classroom as a model is replaced by learning environments in which digital media provide access to a rich source of information.” (p. 38). Shifting  from the traditional learning approach in which my students would listen to my lectures  to a new culture of learning poses new challenges. As I move forward with my current Innovation Plan as a future objective, one of the biggest challenges I foresee is the process of adapting to the new ways of teaching and learning and meeting the needs of our students at our school. In order to overcome this first challenge, open lines of communication need to be at the center of any step I take in the development of the e-portfolios (Innovation Plan). This means that I need to relate the message to parents, students, administration team and other teachers so that each stakeholder looks forward to what comes next. In other words, I want them to embrace the change instead of fighting it. This new culture of learning in which students are asked to reflect upon their own learning and develop student agency skills will be a game changer for each one of my learners. I want my students to have an active role in their learning through voice, and choice. Throughout this process, I will be a facilitator of their learning letting my students be in the driver’s seat. 

Creating Significant Learning Environments

But how will I create a significant learning environment in my classroom? According to Thomas (2011), “the three dimensions of learning – knowing, making, and playing – already emerged in the digital world.” (p. 99). However, I truly believe that igniting student passion was very challenging this year. The desire to know and learn more about a specific topic varied from student to student. This is definitely an area I need to develop. As an educator, I need to help my students identify their passions, so that I can then help them build or create content aligned experiences that revolve around these passions. The goal is for students to become excited and dig deeper into a specific topic while I serve as a facilitator of their new learning by supporting them, making connections and guiding them through problem solving situations. The second dimension is playing. In my case, I see “play” as part of the engagement that I want to foster in my classroom. I see “playing” when my students are actively seeking information that will lead to new discoveries, or finding new ways to use a technology tool. The third dimension, making, relates to the main product in my innovation plan: e-portfolios. Students will develop an e-portfolio using a variety of technology tools. A positive result after the pandemic happened is the 1:1 device program. This means that students will have access to a technology device to build their portfolio in a sustainable way. But, having more technology in students’ hands does not mean that learning outcomes should be successful. Harapnuik (2015) states that “it also needs to integrate approaches to creating flexible, engaging and effective learning environments”. (YouTube Video). I realized that technology enhances learning but in order for my students to learn, I need to plan on being their facilitator of such a process. 


In order to create a new culture of learning, I need to communicate with all stakeholders in my learning community. Change is not easy for everyone and implementing e-portfolios in my class (Innovation Plan) will require parents, students, administrative team and other colleagues to embrace the change. I need to be strategic at designing the learning opportunities that give my students voice and choice. In addition to that, creating a student-centered learning environment will allow me to be a facilitator who may determine when to allow the student to engage in purposeful struggle. By doing this, students will be more invested in their growth and empowered to follow a path for learning.

References

Connected Learning Alliance. (2012, September 18). The Global One Room Schoolhouse: John Seely Brown (Highlights from JSB’s Keynote at DML2012) [Video]. YouTube.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2005). Constructivist theories. Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development (pp. 49-63). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Harapnuik, D. (2015, May 8). Creating Significant Learning Environments (CSLE) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZ-c7rz7eT4&feature=youtu.be

Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change (1st ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.